Ganoderma lucidum is actually a popular herbal medicine utilized in China to promote health. Modern studies have disclosed that the active ingredients of Ganoderma can exhibit a number of effects, including antitumor effects and immunomodulation. The current study evaluated the antitumor effects of self-prepared ganoderma lucidum spore oil and spores oil, and investigated the potential underlying mechanisms by observing the consequences of the extracts and oil on topoisomerases as well as the cell cycle. The outcomes indicated that Ganoderma extracts and spores oil presented dose-dependent inhibitory effects on tumor cells.
Ganoderma lucidum, also called Ganoderma or Lingzhi, is just one of most often used fungi in Chinese medicine. Modern pharmacological and clinical tests have confirmed that Ganoderma contains abundant biologically active substances in the fruiting body, mycelia and spores, and possesses variable functions, including immunomodulation, anti-aging, reducing blood lipids, anti-viral and anti-tumor activities (1-6). The current study examined the antitumor activity of a blend of aqueous and ethanol extracts of the Ganoderma fruiting body and Ganoderma spores oil, which had been taken from broken spores by supercritical CO2 extraction technology and explored the possible underlying mechanisms. DNA topoisomerases certainly are a class of enzymes active in the regulation of DNA supercoiling.
Topoisomerase overexpression continues to be associated with several human malignancies and is also the prospective for numerous chemotherapeutic agents (7). When topoisomerases are blocked, the cell encounters problems during transcription in the DNA and through cell division. The widely-used antitumor drug, campothecin, blocks the relaxing action of class I topoisomerases and induces significant G1 cell cycle arrest (8). A previous study indicated that the active elements of Ganoderma exhibited inhibition of topoisomerases (9). The current study examined whether Ganoderma extracts and spore oil affected the cell cycle and topoisomerases I and II.
Preparations of Ganoderma extracts and spores oil – Ganoderma extracts (GanoHerb™) and Ganoderma spores oil were provided by Fujian Xianzhilou Biological Science and Technology Co., Ltd. (Fuzhou, China). Ganoderma extract, a brown powder, was dissolved in double distilled water to make solutions of varied concentrations, that had been brown suspensions. Ganoderma spores oil had been a soft capsule with .5 g/.5 ml golden oil in each capsule. The stock solution of Agaricus Blazei Extract were prepared using double distilled water that contained 6 µl/ml (v/v) Tween 80.
Recently, the impact of Ganoderma on tumors has been increasingly studied. The present study revealed that Ganoderma extracts and spores oil inhibited the expansion of human leukemia cells (K562 and HL60) and human gastric carcinoma cells (SGC-7901) in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, Ganoderma extracts and spores significantly suppressed the growth of the S180 and H22 transplant tumors in mice. Therefore, Ganoderma extracts and spores oil demonstrated definite antitumor effects inside the in vitro vrlzqn in vivo studies.
Since ancient times, Ganoderma continues to be commonly used being a popular herbal medicine for your promotion of health (11). Numerous previous studies examined the immunomodulatory activities of Ganoderma (12,13). By detecting the immunity indexes of mice bearing S180 or H22 cells, Ganoderma extracts were concluded to possess a certain effect on improving immune function, while Ganoderma spores oil had no significant effect on the spleen or thymus indexes of mice. One of many components of Ganoderma extract is really a polysaccharide which has been reported as immune function enhancer (12-15). As there were few polysaccharides (water-soluble substances) within the Ganoderma spores oil, the spores oil exhibited no evident influence on immunity. The current study also indicated that the antitumor effects of Ganoderma could be safer in comparison with 5-FU, which ended in the decreased weight and immunity indexes of mice (Tables I and ?andIIII).
To analyze the potential mechanism of ganoderma lucidum spore powder, the consequences of extracts and spores oil on topoisomerases and the effect of spores oil on the cell cycle were examined.
DNA topoisomerases certainly are a class of enzymes working in the regulating DNA supercoiling. Type I topoisomerases change the amount of supercoiling of DNA by causing single-strand breaks and religation, whereas type II topoisomerases cause double-strand breaks. Both of these activities are particularly crucial during DNA transcription and replication, when the DNA helix should be unwound to enable proper purpose of large enzymatic machinery. Cancer chemotherapy uses this finding, using drugs that block topoisomerases to kill rapidly-dividing cancer cells. As an example, the widely-used anthracycline drugs, including doxorubicin and daunorubicin, attack class II topoisomerases and also the plant toxin, campothecin, blocks the relaxing action of class I topoisomerases.